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To transform a unicode string to a byte string in Python do this:

>>> 'foo'.encode('utf_8')
b'foo'

To transform a byte string to a unicode string:

>>> b'foo'.decode('utf_8')
'foo'

  1. To convert a string to bytes.

    data = ""               #string
    data = "".encode()      #bytes
    data = b""              #bytes
  2. To convert bytes to a String.

    data = b""              #bytes
    data = b"".decode()     #string
    data = str(b"")         #string